Ultrafast laser and x-ray science, ultrafast femtosecond-to-attosecond dynamics in molecular and materials systems, development of tabletop coherent x-ray sources and their application in science and technology.
Nonlinear optics has revolutionized laser science by making it possible to efficiently convert laser light from one wavelength into another. Using the extreme nonlinear-optical process of high harmonic generation, light from an ultrafast laser can be coherently upshifted, resulting in a useful, tabletop, laser-like coherent light source in the extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The x-ray bursts generated during high harmonic generation represent the fastest strobe light in existence, fast enough to capture electron dynamics in atoms, molecules, and materials. Bright, femtosecond-to-attosecond, beams of coherent x-rays now span from the vacuum ultraviolet to > 0.5 keV [1,2], with the prospect of reaching the hard x-ray region in the near future. Exciting applications of attosecond science and technology include capturing and controlling the coupled motions of electrons and atoms in molecules, high-resolution imaging, nanoscale heat transport as well as ultrafast, element-specific, dynamics in magnetic materials [3-6].
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 Murnane et al., Nature 460, 1088 (2009).
- La-O-Vorakiat, M. Siemens, M.M. Murnane, H.C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, M. Aeschlimann, P. Grychtol, R. Adam, C.M. Schneider, J.M. Shaw, H. Nembach, T. J. Silva, "Ultrafast Soft X-Ray Magneto-Optics at the M-edge Using a Tabletop High-Harmonic Source", Physical Review Letters 103, 257402 (2009).
- Tenio Popmintchev, Ming-Chang Chen, Alon Bahabad, Michael Gerrity, Pavel Sidorenko, Oren Cohen, Ivan P. Christov, Margaret M. Murnane, and Henry C. Kapteyn, "Phase matched upconversion of coherent ultrafast laser light into the soft and hard x-ray regions of the spectrum", Proceedings of the National Academies of the US 106 (26), 10516 (2009).
- Margaret M. Murnane and John Miao, "Ultrafast X-Ray Photography", Nature 460, 1088 (2009).
- R. Sandberg, C. Song, P. Wachulak, D. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. Marconi, C. Menoni, M. Murnane, J. Rocca, H. Kapteyn, J. Miao, "High Numerical Aperture Tabletop Soft X-ray Diffraction Microscopy with 70 nm Resolution," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 105, 24 (2008).
- L. Miaja-Avila, G. Saathoff, S. Mathias, J. Yin, C. La-o-vorakiat, M. Bauer, M. Aeschlimann, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, "Direct measurement of core-level relaxation dynamics on a surface-adsorbate system," Physical Review Letters 101, 046101 (2008).
- W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H.C. Kapteyn, M.M. Murnane, "Time-resolved Probing of Dynamics in Polyatomic Molecules using High Harmonic Generation", Science 322, 1207 (2008) (featured on cover).
- E. Gagnon, V. Sharma, W. Li, A.S. Sandhu, R. Santra, P. Ranitovic, C.L. Cocke, M.M. Murnane, H.C. Kapteyn, "Observing the birth of electronic Feshbach resonances and delayed autoionization in soft x-ray induced molecular dissociation," Science 322, 1081 (2008).
- Henry C. Kapteyn, Oren Cohen, Ivan Christov, Margaret M. Murnane, "Harnessing Attosecond Science in the Quest for Coherent X-Rays," Science 317, 775 (2007).
- Henry C. Kapteyn, Margaret M. Murnane and Ivan P. Christov, "Coherent X-Rays from Lasers: Applied Attosecond Science", invited article, Physics Today, page 39 (March 2005).
- Randy Bartels, Ariel Paul, Henry Kapteyn, Margaret Murnane, Sterling Backus, Ivan Christov, Yanwei Liu, David Attwood, Chris Jacobsen, "Fully spatially coherent EUV beams generated using a small-scale laser", Science 297, 376 (2002).
- R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimisation of coherent soft-x-rays," Nature 406, 164 (2000).
- Rundquist, C. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, H. Kapteyn and M. Murnane, "Phase Matching of Soft-X-Ray Harmonic Emission in Hollow-Core Fibers", Science 280, 1412 (1998).
- I.P. Christov, M.M. Murnane, H.C. Kapteyn, "Attosecond Pulse Generation in the Single Cycle Regime", Physical Review Letters 78, 1251 (1997).
- M. Asaki, C. P. Huang, D. Garvey, J. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Generation of 11 femtosecond pulses from a modelocked Ti:sapphire laser," Optics Letters 18, 977 (1993).